Citing your Sources in MLA Style

Your bibliography ought to be alphabetized by writer final title. For works which do not have an writer, alphabetize by product title (omitting articles like “a” or “the”). Your bibliography also needs to be formatted making use of indents that are hanging.

Book or Report

The Bible. Authorized King James Variation, Oxford UP, 1998.

Dorris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich. The Crown of Columbus. HarperCollins Publishers, 1999.

Fagih, Ahmed Ibrahim al-. The Singing of the Movie Stars. Translated by Leila El Khalidi and Christopher Tingley. Quick Arabic has: An Anthology, modified by Salma Khadra Jayyusi, Interlink Books, 2003, pp. 140-57.

Johnson, Roberta. Gender and Nation in the Spanish Modernist Novel. Vanderbilt UP, 2003.

Chapter in A guide

Copeland, Edward. “Money.” The Cambridge Companion to Jane Austen, Edited by Copeland and Juliet McMaster, Cambridge UP, 1997, pp. 131-48.

Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Masque of the Red Death.” The whole Works of Edgar Allan Poe, edited by James A. Harrison, vol. 4, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1902, pp. 250-58. HathiTrust Digital Library, >

Journal Article

Piper, Andrew. “Rethinking the Print Object: Goethe therefore the Book of Everything.” PMLA, vol. 121, number 1, Jan. 2006, pp. 124-38. JSTOR,

Newspaper Articles

Dwyer, Jim. “Yeats satisfies the Digital Age, packed with Passionate Intensity.” Ny days, early ed., Arts and Leisure sec., 20 July 2008, pp. 1+.

Book Reviews

Mackin, Joseph. Summary of The Pleasures of Reading in a day and time of Distraction, by Alan Jacomb. Nyc Journal of Books, 2 2011, 222 june.

Magazine Articles

Weintraub, Arlene, and Laura Cohen. “A Thousand-Year Plan for Nuclear Spend.” Company Week, 6 might 2002, pp. 94-96.

Remember that in this instance, the optional initial date of book is roofed, in addition to a few people within the Other Contributors category. That individual might be placed in the writer place, like therefore: “Capra, Frank, director. if you were learning somebody linked to the work”

It is a life that is wonderful. 1946. Directed by Frank Capra, Efficiency by James Stewart et that is al, 2001.

Television Episodes

Whether you determine to place the episode director to the writer place or otherwise maybe not depends on the show along with your use of the show in your writing. If the show features episodes with distinct tale lines or dramatic styles, the manager for every episode can take in authorial value, otherwise the creator or manager regarding the show in general can be positioned in the author place. If no body takes authorial value for the work, destination the title associated with the episode into the very first position.

Bernstein, Adam manager. “Hazard Pay.” Breaking Bad, season 5, episode 3, High Bridge Productions et al., 29 Jul 2012.

“Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Geller, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999.

Federal federal Government Documents ( begin to see the design manual at web web page 104)

Cite them like books, guide chapters, website pages, etc, based on if the product you’re citing is just a thing that is singlebook/report), a percentage of the bigger thing (guide chapter), or web-based thing (website pages). Often you will have people that are specific as writers, but whenever this isn’t the truth, make use of the title associated with organization or agency in charge of book.

Begin the entry utilizing the title regarding the federal government, accompanied by way of a comma plus the title of this agency. At the conclusion for the entry for a publication that is congressional you might optionally are the quantity and session of Congress, and they type and number of the book. (The MLA Handbook especially recommends following Chicago handbook of Style if you are using many federal government publications and require specialized citation guidance.)

Britain, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food. Our Countryside, the near future: A Fair Contract for Rural England. Her Majesty’s Stationery Workplace, 2000.

Un. Effects of Rapid Population Growth in Developing Countries. Taylor and Francis, 1991.

Usa, Congress, House, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Al-Qaeda: The Numerous Faces of an Islamist Extremist Threat. National Printing Workplace, 2006. 109th Congress, 2nd session, home Report 615.

Private Interviews

Record the individual (last name first), followed by “Personal Interview” then the date for the interview

Smith, Jane. Personal meeting. 19 May 2014.

Interview or sound Commentary on a DVD

Observe that in the very first instance the name is in quote marks because that is the name the writer offered it. The interview had no given title, so we present a brief description without quotation marks instead in the second and third examples.

Blanchett, Cate. “In Character with: Cate Blanchett.” Records for a Scandal, Directed by Richard Eyre, Fox Searchlight, 2006.

Olivier, Laurence. Interview by Kenneth Tynan. Richard III, Directed by Laurence Olivier, 2004, The Criterion Collection,

Verbinski, Gore and Johnny Depp. Audio Commentary. Pirates of this Caribbean: The Curse associated with Ebony Pearl, Buena Vista entertainment, 2004.

Real Time Performances

Aristophanes. Directed by Barbara Karger and Michael Preston, 20 2006, Goodwin Theater, Austin Arts Center, Hartford april.

Image or Artwork

In the event that you see it very first hand, the positioning may be the real precise location of the work. If you see a reproduction, stick to the standard guidelines for Containers.

Should your image does not have any title, provide a brief description associated with the product into the title location. Don’t consist of quotation marks or italicize this description.

DaVinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. 1503?, Louvre Museum, Paris.

DaVinci, Leonado. Mona Lisa. 1503?, Wikipedia,,_by_Leonardo_da_Vinci,_from_C2RMF_retouched.jpg.

Image of pet. 2016,

Work with a string

Clowes, Daniel. David Boring. Eightball, no. 19, Fantagraphics, 1998.

Twitter, Twitter, YouTube, etc

Each bibliographic entry in MLA style is made on a single principles, with almost no variation from book kind to publication kind.

Each cited work has typical elements placed in the order that is following the punctuation noted on this chart. Works could be published as solitary devices, but the majority take place in “Containers” (like an essay or poem in book, or an episode of a television show, or an article in a newspaper). If information regarding an element is not available, miss the element and relocate towards the following.

Here are a few examples that are useful

Utilizing the Basic Elements

Writers are comprehended very broadly. If you’re focusing on the job of the specific star in a movie, that actor could be the Author, and also you add a descriptive label like so: Pitt, Brad, performer. When you yourself have 3 or even more authors, list the initial writer accompanied by “et al.”

Titles of sources are italicized in the event that supply is just a thing that is complete it self (a book, play, or movie). Titles are enclosed in quote markings in the event that supply is element of a bigger posted thing (a poem in a collection, a bout of a television show, articles in a log). The title of a container is nearly always italicized for this reason. If there is no name, include a brief description for the work but do not utilize italics or quotation marks.

Other Contributors may be noted if they truly are crucial that you your projects. Precede each true name or band of names with a description such as “adapted by” or “edited by.” If the man or woman’s part must maintain noun kind, do this accompanied by way of a comma as in “general editor, Edwin H. Cady.” In the event that factor ended up being vital that you the foundation not the container, place this factor information between the Title regarding the supply as well as the Title for the Container.

Variations are now and again crucial, such as for example “8th ed” for this form of the MLA Handbook.

Numbers relate to volume and problem numbers on publications and periodicals. Utilize “vol.” and “no.” for “volume” and “number.”

Publisher identifies the business that made the source/container offered to people. Host to book isn’t any longer listed as of the edition that is 8th except in unique circumstances (see web page 51). Numerous writers which are similarly responsible are detailed, divided by a slash that is forward. “University Press” is abbreviated to “UP.” Publishers are perhaps maybe not detailed for the following forms of sources:

  • periodicals (journals, mags, papers)
  • Works published by their writers or editors
  • Sites that have games simply the just like their writers’ names
  • Websites maybe perhaps not taking part in producing the works it creates available ( such as for instance a solution like, or an archive like JSTOR). In the event that articles associated with the web site are organized into a whole that is unified much like YouTube or JSTOR), your website is detailed early in the day as a Container name.